This form develops with the emergence of large-scale machine production.
It includes socio-political activities of people, which regulates relations between states, nations, peoples and is aimed at constant change and renewal of public life.
Organizational and managerial activity is important, in scientific knowledge – a scientific experiment. The concept of “form of practice” embodies the degree of development of the subject. The grounds for classifying forms of practice may be different. The above classification is based mainly on various forms of human life. It is possible to allocate forms of practice on the basis of interrelation of the theory and practice.
From this point of view, the first form of practice is the external activity of man, which coincides with his social behavior, with a focus on common sense and certain socially defined norms. The second form of practice is the actual subject-transforming activity, which is based on empirical-practical experience. Here the practice coincides with practical experience. Knowledge corresponding to this form of practice reflects the experience as a certain system of operations with the object.
The practical relation of the person to the world in this case acquires character of system of abilities, skills, dexterity. The third form of practice is practice combined with scientific knowledge. It is based on the theoretical comprehension of the subject, acts as an integrity of active operations, adequate structures of the subject, defined in theory. This form develops with the emergence of large-scale machine production. Science as a universal activity of the human mind reveals the subject in its integrity, necessity, generality.
Practical activity is based on scientific theory, which comprehends the generalized characteristics of the subject and presents them as the purpose of activity. These ideally set goals are objectified, in fact, by practical activity, so the operations, the system of which the activity consists, acquire a generalized theoretical form. In addition to scientific knowledge, this form of practice takes into account the real goals set by man, that is, reveals its humanistic orientation.
In general, practice is an activity to transform the world in accordance with the interests of man – this is its main content, this is its meaning as a specific human attitude to the world. The peculiarity of the practice is that it is a process of constant denial of natural and social data. Since practice in the essential, deep sense is not only a simple repetition or even reproduction of what was and is, it acts as a moment of accumulation, the inclusion of what will be, the future.
But note that in addition to actions that are creative in nature, change, transform the world around and create a basic, defining level of practice, it includes another, albeit subordinate, level of action. If the first level can be called transformative, then the second level – using.
The level of practice used includes a certain set of habits and actions-operations, which are carried out according to the relevant rules (norms, recipes, instructions), which contribute to the continuous reproduction of the level of control over the world achieved by mankind … These are actions on the animal farm chapter 7 and 8 summary use of means of production, transport, household appliances, compliance with the rules of production technology – that is, the actions that previously took place.
To implement the activity at the user level there is no need to have knowledge that directly reveals the act itself, its essence – it is enough to have a recipe, a “formula” actually an algorithm to achieve the desired result. For example, in order to use electric lighting, it is not necessary to have even basic knowledge of the theory of electricity, for this it is enough to be able to use a switch.
Note that using the level of practice, the method of activity is important in public life, but its direct “visual effectiveness” with a certain absolutization leads to an unfounded identification of the subordinate level of practice with practice as such. Such a variant, when practice is understood in a narrowly pragmatic sense, as a direct benefit generated by consumer (and only) interests in the history of philosophy is known. This is a practice in the so-called dirty-trade form.
The humanistic content of practice
A significant analysis of the labor process, in which man not only transforms nature in accordance with his goals, but also undergoes significant changes, shows one of the defining features of practice: its humanistic orientation. Man distinguishes himself from nature, makes himself man, creates his “second” nature, “humanized” which appears in culture, cultural values, which, enriched from generation to generation, increases the wealth of mankind.
Material and practical transformation of the world through goal-setting is the basis of human division of the world into existing and world of possibilities, the world of images of the future. Therefore, due to the ability to create options for the desired future, to act to achieve it and creates the objective world of human existence, the essential forces of man himself are formed and developed (mind, feelings, will).
Thus, the human ability to create the objective world of its existence carries a much broader meaning than the immediate needs met by these objects.
From the point of view of humanistic content in the structure of practice we can distinguish the following points:
various material elements; hook so-called “intangible” elements – social relations; actually a person, his inner world, abilities, everything that characterizes his individuality.
The summative approach to understanding practice comes down to simply listing these different aspects of the transforming human impact on the world, where the expansion of “man-made” capabilities becomes decisive. Practice is reduced to technical progress, its substantive content – to the priority of material elements. But a purely material understanding of practice does not express its humanistic essence.
Substantive interpretation of practice (non-humanistic) is manifested in the underestimation of the importance of the social content of human life. For example, imagine a situation when, under the slogans of recognizing the priority of material and production practice, there were obstacles to the democratization of public life, the expansion of social activity.
There is a state when the declared hegemony of material elements is replaced by the hegemony of the managerial approach, in which the material becomes the goal, and the human in relation to it – the means. And again the humanistic essence of practice is lost.
Philosophical understanding of practice should reveal the relationship between material and broader socio-humanistic content, transforming human attitudes to the world. Because every practical action is not just a transformation of a particular thing by a person, but is something much broader than the direct meaning of such an action. This action is an expression of a certain attitude of a person to a particular thing and vice versa.
The objects that a person deals with in the process of life acquire a humanistic meaning, because they become the social-objective embodiment of man. These items indicate the degree of historical development of man. The material content of objective forms of human activity is subordinated to their social content, which is a means of human self-development. In practice, there is a well-known humanistic credo: “man does not exist for society, but society for man.”
Thus, practice is not a simple enumeration of the above points; it is the human meaning of both material and social characteristics, and therefore its completion is human self-development. The historical development of practice is not determined only by social production (which should not be underestimated); the highest indicator of such development is the human aspect of production. Practice as a specifically human way of life, which has a social character, is the material basis that provides the “connection of times” of human existence (past, present, future) and the continuity of cultural heritage of generations.
Among the various characteristics, features of practice, we pay attention to the main ones: subjectivity, universality, immediacy, revolutionary, universality, goal-setting. Since man is a subject-sensory being, his activity is also objective. Practice in its essence is an active-transforming activity of man as an objective being, because, unlike the behavior of animals, its implementation is the realization of a conscious goal, which naturally determines the nature and mode of human action.
The embodiment of the goal is nothing but the objectification (in natural phenomena, social relations, etc.) of practical activity. Involvement of the objective results of practice in the process of subsequent activity reproduces the “extinguished” past activity in them, again translates it into an active form, materializes. The structure of practice is revealed in the categories of objectification and objectification.
Objectification is the transformation of human forces and abilities from a form of human activity into a form of frozen objectivity. The material world created by man is a manifestation of realized human forces, goals and abilities, thoughts and feelings. Objectification is the process of translating frozen objectivity into organic moments of living activity, the transformation of human abilities and social content that are objective in objects into the property of people.
The objectification of practice is the transition of the material-transforming, sensory-objective process carried out by the subject into the object, the transfer of the existing human abilities into the objective form. The reverse process is objectification, ie the transition of objectivity into a creative ability of man, who masters the natural, cultural, emotional, symbolic environment. The dialectic of objectification and objectification is the inner content of the process of practice as the basis of the diversity of human activity.
One of the most characteristic features of practice is universality. The essence of the universality of the human way of life, man’s attitude to the world is that, embodied in the actions of specific individuals, in the social properties of objects and phenomena created by them, it acquires the status of direct reality. Universality and immediacy are dialectical opposites, the interaction of which provides the internal dynamism of practice, its mobility, contradiction.
The social nature of practice, through which its universality is manifested, indicates that the practice is characterized by certain certainties, permanent structural formations.