Its protective properties are minimal, in particular, from the effects of nuclear weapons.
Acting in different combinations, the terrain and local objects in combination with the climate form different types of terrain, each of which in its own way affects all aspects of combat operations. Therefore, the area is considered one of the most important elements of the combat situation.
The influence of the terrain on combat is determined in accordance with the combat task, taking into account the armament of the unit, time of year and day, as well as meteorological conditions and the nature of the enemy’s actions. The terrain can contribute to the success of combat operations of its units and weaken the actions of the enemy, but not in itself, but only if the commander correctly assesses it and skillfully uses it in a particular situation. When assessing the situation, the commander must: study the general nature of the area and its impact on the actions of units; establish the most probable directions of action of aircraft, helicopters and other air targets of the enemy at low and extremely low altitudes; identify tank-hazardous areas; choose the most advantageous positions to place your firearms.
Determining the plan of battle, the commander, in addition, must establish the most accessible areas of action of units and areas, the content of which depends on the stability of defense, the boundaries of combat missions of motorized infantry and tank units, deployment of command and observation posts enemy and the actions of their units, the most resistant to destruction of local objects that can be used as landmarks.
The properties of the terrain that affect the organization and conduct of combat, the use of weapons and military equipment, are called tactical properties. The main ones are the terrain, its protective properties, the conditions of orientation, observation, camouflage and firing. In some areas, the conditions of the engineering equipment of the area have a significant impact on the conduct of the battle.
Terrain terrain is a property of the terrain that facilitates or hinders the movement of units. It is taken into account when choosing the direction of concentration of the main efforts of the unit, determining the width of the offensive front, the possibility and ability to use different types of military equipment, as well as when organizing maneuvers, choosing ways to supply ammunition and supplies.
The main factor that determines the terrain is the road network. The more developed the network of roads and the higher their class, the more accessible the area for the actions of all types of troops. Paved roads allow traffic in any weather. The passability of dirt roads is determined mainly by the nature of soils and soils, terrain, time of year and weather conditions.
The role of the road network is further enhanced in swampy, desert and mountainous areas, where the movement of units off the roads is extremely difficult. The value of the road network is growing sharply during the spring and autumn crossroads. In such conditions, paved roads acquire the importance of the most important areas, along which the main efforts of units are concentrated both in the offensive and in defense.
Off-road terrain is determined by its intersection. Terrain with ravines, steep slopes and cliffs, rivers and wetlands, with large areas of forests significantly reduces the passability of combat vehicles and tractors.
The protective properties of the terrain are the properties of the terrain that weaken the impact of the damaging factors of nuclear and conventional weapons. The correct definition and use of the protective properties of the area facilitates the organization of protection of personnel and military equipment from the striking factors of different types of weapons.
Protective properties of the area are determined primarily by the nature of the terrain, vegetation, the presence in the area of various natural and artificial shelters that can fully or partially protect the units.
Different landforms can enhance or significantly reduce the effects of shock waves, light radiation and penetrating radiation. Thus, on the front (facing the nuclear explosion) slopes of the hills, the pressure of the shock wave increases markedly. On the reverse (relative to a nuclear explosion) slopes, the striking effect of the shock wave is significantly reduced.
Gorges, ravines, ditches, ravines, ditches and other depressions also weaken the action of the shock wave if it crosses them in the transverse direction. The weakening of the striking effect of the shock wave is greater the greater their depth and tortuosity and the smaller the width. So that the striking effect of the shock wave at the bottom of the ravine is 5 m deep and 5 m wide. decreases in comparison with the plains 2.5 times, at a width of 10 m – 1.5 times, at a width of 15 m – 1.3 times.
Protective properties of the area are largely determined by the nature of vegetation. Thus, forests weaken the shock wave by 2 times or more, reduce the effect of can someone write my lab report light radiation by 6-8 times, and reduce the level of radiation by 2-3 times in comparison with open terrain.
Orientation conditions are the properties of the terrain that help determine its location and the desired direction of movement relative to the sides of the horizon surrounding the objects of the terrain, as well as the location of their troops and enemy troops. They are determined by the presence on the ground of characteristic elements of the terrain and local objects that are clearly distinguished from other objects in their appearance or position and convenient for use as landmarks.
Observation conditions are the properties of the terrain that contribute to obtaining information about the enemy. They are determined by the degree of visibility of the surrounding area, the range of inspection and depends on the nature of the terrain, vegetation, the presence of settlements and other objects that interfere with the inspection of the area.
Masking properties of the terrain are the properties of the terrain that allow you to hide from the enemy the location and movement of personnel and military equipment. They are determined by the presence of natural shelters formed by landforms, vegetation, settlements and other local objects, as well as the general nature, color and spotting of the area (the more diverse the color scheme, the better the conditions of camouflage).
Rough terrain with forests and numerous settlements has good masking properties. Thus, ravines, beams, ravines create favorable conditions for sheltering units.
The most convenient natural shelters for units are forests. The properties that mask them are determined mainly by the height of the trees, the closure of the crowns, the composition of the rocks and the presence of undergrowth.
Conditions of fire are the properties of the terrain that provide a convenient and hidden from the enemy’s observation location of firearms, accurate fire from small arms, guns, tanks, anti-tank weapons, mortars, as well as shooting adjustment. They depend on the nature of the terrain, vegetation, the presence of roads, settlements and other local objects.
In determining the conditions of fire establish areas that are not fired by small arms and anti-tank weapons in the location of the enemy and their units, choose the most advantageous positions for firing from small arms and other firearms.
Conditions of engineering equipment of the area depend on the type of soil, groundwater level, availability of construction materials, as well as the nature of natural and artificial shelters and obstacles. The condition of soils largely determines the amount of work on the preparation of column tracks, equipment of the main and reserve firing positions of artillery, excavation of trenches, trenches, shelters for guns, tanks, infantry fighting vehicles and other military equipment, construction of facilities at control points, shelters for personnel. warehouse, technical means and objects of the rear. The presence of building materials (forest, gravel, gravel, sand, etc.) determines the scope and timing of engineering work. The possibility of preparation of water supply points, construction of various constructions depends on the depth of groundwater.
The main types (varieties) of terrain and their tactical properties
According to the nature of the terrain is divided into plain, hilly and mountainous. Mountainous terrain, in turn, is divided into lowland, mid-mountain and highland.
The plains are characterized by the absence of pronounced irregularities of the earth’s surface, small relative elevations (up to 25 m) and relatively low steepness of the slopes (up to 2 °). Absolute heights above sea level are usually up to 300 m.
The open low-lying plain is available for combat operations of all types of troops. Its clay, loamy, sandy, peat soils allow the movement of military equipment in dry weather in summer, but significantly impede movement during heavy rains, spring and autumn off-road.
The absence of significant relative excesses provides a sufficient range of visibility in all directions and the effectiveness of fire of all weapons. However, the plain makes it difficult to organize the camouflage of units from ground and air surveillance. Its protective properties are minimal, in particular, from the effects of nuclear weapons.
Plains are usually more favorable for the organization and conduct of the offensive and less favorable for defense.
The hilly terrain is characterized by the undulating nature of the earth’s surface, forming irregularities (hills) with absolute heights up to 500 m, relative elevations of 25-200 m and the predominant steepness of the slopes of 2-3 °.
To the hilly terrain can be attributed and melkosopochnik, ie a plain with randomly scattered individual hills and groups of hills and ridges.
The hilly terrain allows for combat by all types of troops, maneuvering by off-road units, and is generally favorable for both offensive and defensive. It has favorable natural boundaries for the location of units, equipment of fire positions, has some protective properties against the impact of the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion. The gaps between the hills and the reverse slopes of the hills can serve as shelters from surveillance and enemy fire, hidden approaches to maneuver. In such an area, as a rule, there are many command heights with a long range of visibility and a wide field of view.